The National Monument of Indonesia, a 137-metre tower located at Merdeka Square, center of Jakarta, Indonesia, is the landmark of Jakarta. Its construction began in 1959 under the direction of President Sukarno and was completed in 1968. A torch, made of 35 kilograms of gold, represents the determination of Indonesians to struggle for independence. In the outer yard surrounding the monument there are reliefs of Indonesian anti-colonial war against the Netherlands.
The Indonesian National History Museum has an exhibition of oil paintings and miniature sculptures in the hall below the monument, presenting Indonesian struggle for independence before 1945.