NOTES


The Huai-Hai Campaign (short for Huaihe-Haizhou) was a decisive campaign against the KMT forces fought from November 6, 1948, to January 10, 1949. More than 600,000 PLA troops participated, including the East China Field Army, the Central Plains Field Army (formerly the Field Army of the Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong-Henan Military Area) and the local armed forces from the East China and Central Plains Military Areas and the Hebei-Shandong-Henan Military Sub-area of the North China Military Area. The campaign covered a large territory centred on Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province and extending as far as Haizhou in the east, Shangqiu (Henan Province) in the west, Lincheng (now Xuecheng, Shandong Province) in the north and the Huaihe River in the south. The Military Commission of the CPC entrusted the command of operations to a General Front Committee consisting of Liu Bocheng, Chen Yi, Deng Xiaoping, Su Yu and Tan Zhenlin, with Deng Xiaoping as Secretary.

During this campaign, enemy army commanders Huang Baitao and Qiu Qingquan were killed; Du Yuming, deputy commander-in-chief of the "Bandit Suppression" Headquarters of the Kuomintang forces at Xuzhou, army commander Huang Wei and deputy army commander Wu Shaozhou were captured; and a total of 550,000 enemy troops were put out of action. A vast area north of the lower and middle reaches of the Yangtze River was liberated. As a result, Chiang Kai-shek lost all his crack forces, and such centres of reactionary rule as Nanjing, Shanghai and Wuhan all fell under direct threat from the PLA.