NOTES


In mid-October 1945 Kuomintang troops attacked the Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong-Henan Liberated Area from Xinxiang and along the Beiping-Hankou Railway, thus launching what became known as the Ping-Han or Handan campaign. In late October their three advance corps reached the area south of Cixian County and Handan City. The troops of the Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong-Henan Military Area, commanded by Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping, mounted a defence. After a week of fierce fighting, Gao Shuxun (see note 128) led his troops and the local armed corps from Hebei Province, a total of 10,000 men, in a revolt against the KMT. The other two KMT corps were surrounded and annihilated as they retreated in disorder by the troops of the Military Area. During this campaign more than 3,000 Kuomintang troops were killed or wounded, and over 17,000 troops under the command of Ma Fawu (see note 127) were captured.