NOTES


``Four clean-ups'' was a term for the socialist education movement -- aimed at cleaning things up in the political, economic, organizational and ideological fields -- which was carried out between 1963 and May 1966 in some rural areas and a small number of urban factories, mines, other enterprises and schools. Although it played a certain role in solving problems in the cadres' style of work and in economic management, these problems, which were of different natures, were all seen as manifestations of class struggle or as a reflection of class struggle within the Party. As a result, in the second half of 1964 many cadres at the grass-roots level were wronged. In January 1965, the CPC Central Committee formulated the 23-article document ``Some Current Problems Raised in the Socialist Education Movement in the Rural Areas''. This document corrected certain ``Left'' deviations in the movement. However, it erroneously stipulated that the main target of the movement was the so-called Party persons in power taking the capitalist road.