NOTES


The two Zhengzhou Meetings refer to the meeting called by Mao Zedong in Zhengzhou on November 2-10, 1958, which was attended by some of the central and local leaders, and the enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau, also convened in Zhengzhou, from February 27 to March 5, 1959. The first Zhengzhou Meeting set about correcting the related mistakes that had already been discovered during the movement in which the people's communes were organized in the rural areas. At this meeting, Mao Zedong criticized the erroneous ideas of trying to have the people's communes make a rash transition from collective ownership to ownership by the whole people and from socialism to communism, and of rashly abolishing commodity production. At the second Zhengzhou Meeting, the major topics were the question of ownership in the people's communes and the tendency to effect a premature transition to communism. In line with the views of Mao Zedong, the meeting formulated principles for consolidating and building the people's communes: instituting in the people's communes the system of decentralization of powers, with management and economic accounting carried out at three levels (commune, production brigade and production team) and the production team as the basic unit (in some places this meant a production brigade corresponding to an advanced agricultural producers' co-operative); within the commune, recognizing the differences between individual production brigades, between production teams, and between commune members, and carrying out the principles of distribution according to work and exchange of equal values. The meeting worked out ``Some Regulations Concerning the Management System of the People's Communes (Draft)''.