The government supports private educational organizations. The Law on Promotion of Private Education officially came into effect on September 1, 2003. By the end of 2003, there were 60,000 private schools of various kinds and at various levels, with a total enrollment of 11.16 million. Among them, there are 1,202 private institutes of higher learning (not including the 133 private schools of higher learning qualified to grant degrees), with a total enrollment of 1.4 million. Private schools have opened avenues of cooperation with their foreign counterparts. Many foreign universities have entered China through cooperation with Chinese private schools, enriching China's education and opening new channels for studies.