Stem cells can rescue nerve cells by direct contact: scientists

09:32, February 03, 2010      

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The Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet (KI) announced Tuesday that its scientists had shown how transplanted stem cells can connect with and rescue threatened neurons and brain tissue.

"The new report, co-authored by several international research groups and led by KI, shows that stem cells transplanted into damaged or threatened nerve tissue quickly establish direct channels, called gap junctions, to the nerve cells," said KI in a statement.

The research found that stem cells can actively bring diseased neurons back from the brink via cross-talk through gap junctions, the connections between cells that allow molecular signals to pass back and forth, said the statement.

It pointed out that the study also found that the nerve cells were prevented from dying only when these gap junctions were formed.

The results were obtained from mice and human stem cells in cultivated brain tissue, and from a series of rodent models for human neurodegenerative diseases and acute brain injuries, the statement said, adding that the results point the way to new possible treatments for brain damage and neurodegenerative diseases.

"A possible strategy for treating neurodegenerative diseases is to transplant stem cells into the brain that prevent existing nerve cells from dying. The method has proved successful in different models, but the mechanisms behind it are still unknown," the statement added.

"Many different molecules can be transported through gap junctions," said Eric Herlenius, who led the study. "This means that a new door to the possible future treatment of neuronal damage has been opened, both figuratively and literally," he added.

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