Backgrounder: Chronology of APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM)

12:23, November 13, 2010      

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The APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM), the culmination of the APEC Leaders' Week meetings, opened Saturday in Japan's second largest city of Yokohama.

The following is the chronology of the APEC Economic Leaders' Meetings in recent years:

-- Seattle, the United States, 1993

The leaders discussed topics such as the future of the Asia- Pacific region, regional cooperation and its mechanism. The most remarkable achievement of the meeting was the creation of a vision of community of Asia-Pacific economies. A statement released by the meeting said that the forum should foster the spirit of openness and partnership, support an open international trade system, and reduce trade and investment barriers.

-- Bogor, Indonesia, 1994

The APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration of Common Resolve (Bogor Declaration) was adopted. The declaration included the Bogor Goals, which pledged APEC's intent to achieve free and open trade and investment by 2010 for industrialized economies, and 2020 for developing economies.

-- Osaka, Japan, 1995

The economic leaders approved a Declaration for Action (Osaka Declaration) and adopted the Osaka Action Agenda as a framework to achieve the commitments of the Bogor Declaration. The documents firmly established the "two wheels" of the APEC activities: trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation (Ecotech). The Osaka Action Agenda also provided individual action plans and collective action plans for the implementation of the Bogor Goals.

-- Cubic Bay, the Philippines, 1996

The economic leaders approved the Manila Action Plan for the APEC and the APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration: From Vision to Action. The plan included the following themes: greater market access in goods and services, an open investment regime, reduced business costs, an open and efficient infrastructure sector, and strengthened economic and technical cooperation.

The APEC leaders underlined the following six Ecotech areas: developing human capital, fostering safe and efficient capital markets, strengthening economic infrastructure, harnessing technologies of the future, promoting environmentally sustainable growth, and encouraging the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises.

-- Vancouver, Canada, 1997

The APEC economic leaders endorsed their ministers' agreement that action should be taken for the early voluntary sectoral liberalization in 15 sectors, with nine to be advanced through 1998 and implementation to begin in 1999. They also endorsed the Vancouver Framework for Enhanced Public-Private Partnership for Infrastructure Development.

The Vancouver meeting gave much attention to the financial crisis that swept Southeast Asia.

-- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1998

The economic leaders reaffirmed their confidence in the strong economic fundamentals and prospects for recovery of the APEC member economies. They agreed to pursue a cooperative growth to end the financial crisis.

A number of important documents were approved, including the APEC Economic Leaders Declaration: Strengthening the Foundations for Growth; the 1998 Agenda of the APEC Science and Technology Industry Cooperation into the 21st Century; and the 1998 Kuala Lumpur Action Program on Skills Development.

-- Auckland, New Zealand, 1999

The leaders pledged to strengthen markets and improve the international framework of governing trade and investment. They also endorsed the APEC Leaders Declaration: the Auckland Challenge, and the APEC Principles to Enhance Competition and Regulatory Reform.

-- Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei, 2000

The major topics of the meeting included globalization the New Economy, economic and technical cooperation and human resource development.

The APEC leaders adopted the APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration: Delivering to the Community, and Action Agenda for New Economy in 2000.

-- Shanghai, China, 2001

The meeting was held under the theme of "Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation." It had three sub-themes or agenda items: sharing the benefits of globalization and the new economy, advancing trade and investment, and promoting sustainable economic growth. The leaders reached a consensus on the economic scenario of the world and the Asia-Pacific region, the direction of APEC development in the future, human capacity building and other issues.

-- Los Cabos, Mexico, 2002

The theme of the meeting was "Expanding the Benefits of Cooperation for Economic Growth and Development -- Implementing the Vision."

The leaders discussed counter-terrorism issues, growth policies for the new economy, ways to benefit from development, particularly for small, medium and micro enterprises, and ways to promote greater participation in the APEC by women and young people.

The meeting ended with the adoption of a declaration on economic growth and statements on counter-terrorism.

-- Bangkok, Thailand, 2003

The theme of the meeting was "A world of Differences: Partnership for the Future." The economic leaders adopted the " Bangkok Declaration on Partnership for the Future," calling for restarting the Doha Round of multilateral trade talks and enhancing human security through strengthened and better coordinated anti-terror efforts.

-- Santiago, Chile, 2004

The theme of the meeting was "One Community, Our Future." The leaders adopted the Santiago Declaration aimed at supporting global trade talks, improving global security and other issues.

-- Busan, South Korea, 2005

Under the theme of "Towards One Community: Meet the Challenge, Make the Change," the leaders agreed to advance free trade, enhance human security, prevent spread of avian influenza and revive the World Trade Organization's Doha Development Agenda.

They adopted the Busan Declaration on achieving stability, security and prosperity in the region and pledged to work towards the Bogor Goals with the Busan Roadmap, a mid-term stock-take of progress towards the Goals.

-- Hanoi, Vietnam, 2006

The leaders, after two days of discussions under the theme of " Towards a Dynamic Community for Sustainable Development and Prosperity," reached a consensus on a range of issues including advancing free trade and investment, enhancing human security, and building stronger societies and a more dynamic and harmonious community.

They adopted the Hanoi Declaration, reaffirming their resolve to revive the stalled Doha Round of World Trade Organization negotiations, and endorsed the Hanoi Action Plan to implement the Busan Roadmap for realizing the Bogor Goals of free and open trade and investment in the region by 2020.

-- Sydney, Australia, 2007

For the first time, APEC member economies issued a declaration on climate change, energy security and clean development outlining future action in support of a new international climate change arrangement and announcing a forward program of practical, cooperative actions and initiatives.

The leaders also adopted a major report on closer regional economic integration, including structural reform initiatives, and welcomed the new APEC Trade Facilitation Action Plan which will further reduce trade transaction costs by 5 percent by 2010.

-- Lima, Peru, 2008

The leaders issued a special statement on the financial crisis, vowing to take action "individually and collectively" to restore confidence in their economies and keep the region moving along the path of long-term growth.

During the meeting, the leaders highlighted the urgency to curb any upturn of protectionism that could arise from the crisis and exacerbate the current economic situation.

The leaders urged companies to incorporate social responsibility into their business strategies to take account of social, labor and environmental concerns.

-- Singapore, 2009

The leaders issued a declaration pledging to undergo economic structural reforms, resist trade protectionism in order to develop a new growth model to sustain the weak global recovery.

They vowed to put in place next year a comprehensive long- term growth strategy while maintaining the emergency stimulus policies - - estimated at 1 trillion U.S. dollars -- until a durable recovery has clearly taken hold.

Source: Xinhua


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