Second Lieutenant Lukasz Kurowski, 28, from Poland's forces died Tuesday in Afghanistan from wounds contracted in an ambush, Polish PAP news agency reported.
Kurowski is the first Polish soldier who died in Afghanistan.
The man was wounded by mortarfire while on patrol near his home base Gardez near Afghanistan's border with Pakistan. He died underway to hospital.
Polish troops have been coming under attack more often in recent weeks in Afghanistan.
"Polish soldiers will die in Afghanistan. But we will not back down. We have become a serious enemy of the Taliban and we will fight back," Polish Defense Minister Aleksander Szczyglo said in a interview on Tuesday morning.
Poland has more than 1,100 troops as part of NATO's International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.
The League and Self-defense (LiS) alliance formed by Self- defense and the League of Polish Families called on the cabinet Tuesday for a pullout of Polish troops from Afghanistan.