The 14th Dalai Lama, Lhamo Thondup (also spelled Lhamo Dhondrub), was born in a small village called Qi Jiachuan (Taktser) in Qinghai Province. For over 700 years, generations of people migrated to this area and transformed the region into an ethnically diverse area. Since the rule of the Qing Dynasty in 1644, the Hui people have predominantly inhabited this valley. Only the name, Taktser, is a reminder of early inhabitants from Tibetan tribes. The 14th Dalai Lama, Lhamo Thondup, was born in Dangcai village in Qi Jianchuan (Taktser). This village has an inherently strong Han culture. Lhamo Thondup's family does not even speak a Lhasa language or the Amdo Tibetan language.
The title,"Dalai Lama," comes from a mix of Mongolian and Tibetan languages meaning "master just like the sea and ocean of wisdom." Initially, this was the title presented by Tumote Andda Khan to Tibetan Buddhist monks of the Gelupa Sect. Because the Gelupa Sect follows the tradition of the Living Buddha reincarnation, the title was inherited by generations of Living Buddhas; and later was inherited by the 14th Dalai Lama.
In the mid 17th Century, the fifth Dalai Lama established the Gelupa reign by relying on Mongolia sabers. The Qing Dynasty also strengthened its governance of Tibet. In 1653, the fifth Dalai Lama visited Emperor Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty and was given a formal title which recognized his political and religious status. From then on, the Dalai Lama began a reign that lasted approximately 300 years.
In 1933, the 13th Dalai Lama passed away. The era of the 14th generation was approaching.
Redemption by silver coins, five-year-old child became reincarnation of Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama in his childhood
In 1940, the local Tibet government recognized the five-year-old son of Tibetan farmers, Choekyong and Dekyi Tsering in Taktser, Lhamo Thondup, as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama.
When Lhamo Thondup was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Ma Bufang, then Chairman of the Government of Qinghai Province and a Muslim warlord, refused to let Lhamo Thondup be taken by claiming that he was under Ma's jurisdiction. It was after the Tibet Gaxia Government requested the central government to coordinate and privately deliver to Ma 400,000 silver coins that Lhamo Thondup was finally able to go to Tibet under military protection.
In October 1939, Lhamo Thondup entered Lhasa in a sedan chair, indicative of his position as Dalai Lama. By the influence of Reting Living Buddha, this 5-year-old boy became the new Dalai Lama.
On February 5, 1949, the central government approved Reting Living Buddha's request and waived the lottery from a golden urn. Lhamo Thondup became the official successor to the 13th Dalai Lama. So the Gaxia Government decided to hold the enthronement ceremony for the 14th Dalai Lama in the east hall of Potala Palace on the 22nd. Since then, Lhamo Thondup became Dalai Lama Tenzin Jiaze; and the peasant's child became the most mysterious and highest representative of politics, religion and society.
The Gaxia Government granted his family several manors. The Dalai Lama's chef, Gama Qu Yang, said: "We had 18 Buddhist monks and staff responsible for his diet. In order to make yogurt for yogurt rice we raised a total of 30 cows. But at that time, the vast majority of children born were the descendants of slaves or serfs."
Tibetan Dignitary Tufthunting after British invasion
Westerners became interested in Tibet a long time ago. In order to open up the door to Tibet, in 1904, Colonel Rong Hepeng led an expedition; trekked over Nathu La Pass; and embarked on an invasion of Tibet. The aggressors passed Yadong and Gyangze then entered Lhasa. Angry Tibetans were determined to resist. They used castles in Gyangze Mountain to fight against the aggressors; but were defeated.
At that time, the central government of the Qing Dynasty and a precarious minister in Tibet, You Tai, refused to provide any aid to Tibet. The 13th Dalai Lama had to get away from Tibet.
After British imperialist forces entered Tibet, they looked for agents in Tibet and carried out separatist activities through these agents. Some Tibetan rulers in higher positions also enthusiastically joined British and Indian forces. They sent students to the United Kingdom and established an English school in Gyangze. But later the Gaxia regime punished these people. Long Xia, the chief instigator, died in prison.
In 1934, Reting Living Buddha came into power. It was he who presided over the search for the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama. However, his political opponents took advantage of his weaknesses and forced him to step down. They first requested the new Dalai Lama, Tenzin Jiaze, to replace Reting with Dagzhag Ngawang Sungrab. Then Reting was put in jail for once having asked the central government to help arrest Dagzhag Ngwang Sungrab.
Reting Living Buddha was imprisoned and died in the Potala Palace. Since then, eager for power and relying on British and American forces to seek independence, Dagzhag Ngawang Sungrab has held Tibet's political and religious power. As the Dalai's teacher, he deeply influenced Tenzin Jiaze.
By People's Daily Online