Twenty-eight members of criminal gangs were jailed for terms ranging from five years to life or given the death penalty in a three-month crackdown upon gang-related crime.
The crackdown, which started in February, was jointly launched by police, prosecutors and courts nationwide.
Police received more than 3,700 reports from the public by telephone, letter and e-mail. They are investigating 1,013 gang-related cases.
In a bid to prevent and curb rural and foreign gangs, and gangs involved in forced demolitions, the Ministry of Public Security is to issue a regulation instructing senior officers to make fighting gangs a priority.
Prosecutors issued arrest warrants for 3,612 people from March to April, of whom 1,784 were brought to court. Ten officials involved in six gang-related cases were investigated on suspicion of protecting gangs. Eight have been arrested.
By the end of April, courts had heard 38 gang-related cases involving 452 people and had concluded 23 cases involving 180 convicted criminals.
An official with the national office of gang crime said criminal gangs frequently emerged in the construction and transportation industries, as well as in entertainment venues. Some gangs were penetrating the mining and energy industries.
Gang leaders seldom committed violent crimes themselves, but employed others, the official said. Some gangs set up companies to cover their crimes.
Some local officials, however, failed to realize the severity of the problem or were unwilling to admit the existence of local gangs for the fear of affecting the investment environment.
Different departments of the government lacked a coordinated system to fight gangs, the official said.