According to the especial plan for medium-and-long-term energy conservation for the 11th five-year period (2006-10), China will set its focus of energy saving in the industrial sector, transportation and construction industries, as well as commercial and civil power use, said official with the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) recently.
The plan was made according to China's potential in energy saving and its future energy demand.
In the industrial sector, efforts will be focused on the highly-consuming industries such as power, iron and steel, nonferrous metal, oil and petrochemistry, chemistry, construction material, coal and machinery. In transportation, the newly-emerging vehicles are the focal point while strictly enforcing the standards of energy-efficiency design is the key in construction industry. Commercial and civil energy conservation mainly relies on the improvement of the power efficiency of the equipment.
Ten programs have been planned for energy efficiency in the 11th five-year period.
Upgrade coal-burning industrial boilers (kilns)
China is now using 500, 000 medium-sized and small boilers, which averagely have a capacity of only 2.5 ton per hour and a designed efficiency of 72 to 80 percent and an actual efficiency around 65 percent. 90 percent of them are coal-burning with an annual consumption of 350 to 400 million tons, in which 70 million tons can be saved.
Three measures are planned: use quality coal, selecting lump coal, sulphur fixed coal; renovate medium-sized and small boilers (kilns) with advanced techniques such as circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and pulverized coal firing; establish scientific management and operation system.
Through these measures, it is expected that the efficiency of coal-burning boilers and kilns be raised by five and two percentage points, with 25 million and 10 million tons saved respectively.
Through combined heat and power (CHP) systems (also known as cogeneration), heat efficiency can be raised by 30 percent as compared to separated generation. Centralized heat supply is 50-percent more efficient than small boilers.
In the 11th five-year period, the focus will be on the heat load of heating.
Measures to be taken are: install 300, 000-kilowatt highly efficient environment-friendly cogeneration units mainly in the areas with concentrated heat load or with relatively bigger potential for development; construct back-pressure units, mostly thermal power, mainly in the areas featuring industrial heat load, according to the local conditions; first develop centralized heat supply in the areas whose heat demand is mainly for warming and is relatively small in amount, and later develop cogeneration when the conditions are available; in medium-sized and small cities, construct, mainly based on CFB, combined supply of heat, electricity and gas, and distributed cogeneration and combined heat-power-cooling supply with clean fuels; transform existent coal-burning small boilers for decentralized heat supply.
The goal is, by 2010, coverage of urban centralized heat supply 27 percent in 2002, raised to 40 percent; 40 million kilowatts of cogeneration units for heating be added and 35 million tons of standard coal saved.
Make use of exhaust heat and pressure
Iron and steel enterprises will apply coke dry quenching (CDQ) and power generation through the pressure difference in blast furnace, renovate all blast furnace gas power generation and implement converter gas recovery in the 11th five-year period, saving 2.66 million tons of standard coal; install each year 30 sets of medium-and-low-temperature exhaust-heat power generation equipment in concrete production lines with a daily yield of 2, 000 tons; through exploiting ground coalbed gas (CBG), extracting and draining gas in ground mined-out areas, discarded mines and below the grand surface, realize an annual gas application of one billion cubic meters, which is equiv